Research & Development Infrastructure
There is a vast research and development infrastructure in the country. It comprises of research and development laboratories, institutes, professional societies and others. These are spread all over the country and carry out research and development activities in various fields, some of which are in frontier areas of science and technology. Major ones are Department of Scientific and Industrial Research which includes Council of Scientific and Industrial Research which has 38 laboratories, more than 500 Scientific and Industrial Research Organizations, Department of Science and Technology has around 20 scientific institutions, Department of Biotechnology has around 6 laboratories, Indian Council of Medical Research (ICMR) with over 25 laboratories, Indian Council of Agricultural Research with 39 laboratories, Defense Research and Development Organization (DRDO) with around 40 laboratories Department of Space with around 8 laboratories and Department of Atomic Energy with about 15 laboratories. There exists a vast network of universities, technical institutions and colleges in the country. A few important ones involved in industrial research are highlighted below:
The Council of Scientific and Industrial Research (CSIR) has a network of national laboratories/institutes in various parts of the country to undertake research in diverse field of science and technology and with emphasis on applied research and utilization of research results. There are, at the end of 2005-06, 38 research establishments in different parts of the country. They are in various sectors like Physical sciences, Chemical sciences, Biological sciences, Engineering sciences and Information sciences. It has a total Science and Technology staff of 15,420 at the end of 2005-06. The efforts have resulted into many innovative products, processes and services benefiting many industrial and business units including SMEs.
Scientific and Industrial Research Organizations
These organizations have significantly contributed to enhancing innovativeness in the country. DST, DBT and othe Ministries/Departments of the Government have supported a few of these Organisations. There is a scheme of registration of such units, which is operated by the Department of Scientific and Industrial Research. Those units who have qualified scientists and researchers and have also established good infrastructure facilities, have developed innovative products, processes, procedures and technologies, qualify for recognition. At the end of 2005-06, there were 560 units in the country, in various fields.
In-house R&D units of industry
There are a number of companies in industry who have in-house R&D units. There is a system of recognition of such units by the DSIR. Those who are engaged in innovative research and development activities, have qualified and experienced R&D personnel and such activities are separate from other activities of the organization viz. production, quality control, qualify for recognition. At the end of 2005-06, there were 1205 recognized units in the country, in various industrial sectors.
There are a number of professional societies in the country promoting research and development. Prominent ones are Indian Academy of Sciences, Bangalore, Indian National Academy of Engineering, New Delhi, Indian National Science Academy, New Delhi, Indian Science Congress, Kolkata and National Academy of Sciences, Allahabad. Activities of these Societies include striving excellence in the field of engineering, undertaking research projects, enhancing academia-industry interaction, operating Distinguished Visiting Professorship Scheme, organizing yearly Indian Science Congress (where grass root innovators exhibit their newly developed products) etc. The DST provides some financial and professional support to these societies. In addition, there are even larger professional societies such as Institution of Engineers, Institution of Chemical Engineers, Institution of Industrial Engineers and others.
There are a number of professional Societies in the IT sector. A few important ones are Center for Materials for Electronics Technology (C-MET), Center for Development Advanced Computing (C-DAC), Society for Applied Microwave Electronics Engineering and Research (SAMEER) Electronics and Computer Software Export Promotion Council (ESC), DOEACC- for human resource development – http://www.doeacc.org.in
and National Internet Exchange of India (NIXI)
Centers for Technology and Innovation Management
The DSIR has initiated a process of setting up of Centers of Technology and Innovation Management at different locations in the country. The objective is to provide support to industry particularly the SMEs in this area. The activities include undertaking cluster development studies, case studies, scouting innovation, enhancing interface between academia and industry, data generation, sharing of knowledge and providing solutions to technical problems, undertaking technology and innovation related policy research studies and developing training tools and modules.
Centers of Excellence in Biotechnology
The DBT has a Scheme to augment and strengthen institutional research capacity for greater innovation in the area of biotechnology through support for establishment of Centers of Excellence. The Department supports centers in identified thrust areas, which would be built around gifted individuals in existing universities and national laboratories with influx of new and young scientists. Support is given to expand and develop faculty research capabilities and to enhance research infrastructure.
R&D Infrastructure – Others
Department of Information Technology
) The DIT has set up an autonomous Institution – Media Lab Asia that aims to research and innovate developments in the area of information and communication technologies for the benefit of poor and needy population. It focuses on facilitation and support for taking technologies from lab to land.
Ministry of Small Scale Industries
) through its attached office – Small Industries Development Organization (SIDO)(http://www.laghu-udyog.com) has a network of 30 Small Industries Service Institutes (SISIs) in various States of the Indian Union, providing a host of services including technology up gradation, enhancing innovation, workshop facilities and imparting training There are also a number of Testing Centers, Tool Rooms, Design Centers and Product and Process Development Centers, all across the country. Technology Resource Centers have been set up in all the 30 SISIs. These help the small-scale units in identifying appropriate technologies, facilitate absorption of technology etc. TRCs work as facilitators and provide latest information and help industry to adopt viable advanced technology suitable to local conditions
Ministry of Textiles
) There are eight textile research associations financially supported by the Ministry of Textiles. They carry out research in various fields as per the requirement of the industry and also provide services like consultancy, testing, training etc.